Adipose Tissue Shows Promise in the Field of Regenerative Medicine
Adipose tissue is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown promise in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, these cells can be readily harvested in large numbers. Various clinical trials have shown the regenerative capability of adipose-derived stem cells in subspecialties of medical fields such as plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and cardiac surgery.
In the field of regenerative medicine, basic research and preclinical studies have been conducted to overcome clinical shortcomings with the use of mesenchymal stem cells. MSCs are present in adult tissues including adipose tissue. For many years, bone marrow-derived stem cells were the primary source of stem cells for tissue engineering applications.
However, studies have shown that adipose tissue provides a clear advantage over other stem cell sources due to the ease with which adipose tissue can be accessed as well as the ease of isolating stem cells from harvested tissue. Initial enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue yields a mixture of stromal and vascular cells referred to as the stromal-vascular fraction.
Adult stem cells exhibit stable growth and proliferation kinetics and can differentiate toward osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, or neurogenic lineages in vitro.
Using these attractive cell populations, research studies continue to explore the safety and efficacy of administrated adult stem cells in various animal models.